7th-Today in 1711 Queen Anne attended the Ascot race meeting, thus earning it the prefix ‘Royal’. The modern-day meeting, held every June, hosts some of the best-known races in the turf calendar, including the Gold Cup and the Royal Hunt Cup. Swedish figure skater Ulrich Salchow was born on this day in 1877. Salchow won the World Figure Skating Championships ten times, from 1901 to 1905, and from 1907 to 1911. This is still a record, which he shares with Sonja Henie who also won 10 titles in the 1920s and 1930s, and with Irina Rodnina who won 10 titles in the 1960s and 1970s. Salchow did not compete in the 1906 World Championships that were held in Munich, as he feared that he would not be judged fairly against Gilbert Fuchs of Germany. When figure skating was first contested at the Summer Olympic Games in London (1908), Salchow also won the title with ease. In addition, Salchow won the European Championships a record nine times (1898–1900, 1904, 1906-1907, 1909-1910, 1913) and placed second in the World Championships three times. In 1909, Ulrich Salchow first landed a jump in competition in which he took off on the back inside edge, and landed on the back outside edge of his other foot. This jump is now known as the Salchow in his honour. After his competitive days, Salchow remained active in the sport, and was president of the International Skating Union (ISU) from 1925 to 193.  Furthermore, he was the chairman of AIK in Stockholm between 1928 and 1939 – the leading Swedish club in football, ice-hockey, bandy, tennis and other sports.  Today in 1909 Alice Huyler Ramsey and three friends became the first women to complete a transcontinental car trip, taking 59 days to travel from New York to San Francisco. The first British Grand Prix was raced at Brooklands in 1926. Known as the RAC Grand Prid, the race was won by Senechal and Wagner in a Delage at an average speed of 71.61mph (115.22km/hr).  Australian cricketer Greg Chappell was born in 1948. He played for his country 87 times, scored 7110 runs and took 122 catches. Against New Zealand at Wellington in 1973 he scored an aggregate 380 runs in the match, a Test record until surpassed by Graham Gooch in 1990. He captained Australia 48 times. Top flat-race jockey Walter Swinburn was born in 1961. Two Derbys are among his many top-race wins, in 1981 on Shergar and in 1986 pm Shahrastani. His father, Walter senior, was also a jockey.  Also born on this day in 1961 Russian-Canadian former gymnast, coach and judge Yelena Davydova. She is the 1980 Olympic all-around champion, and owns Gemini Gymnastics, a high-performance gymnastics club in Oshawa, Ontario, where she is also the head coach. In July 2012, Davydova was one of the coaches of the Canadian Women’s Artistic Gymnastics Team. Kristina Vaculik, coached by Davydova, was a member of the team, which was placed fifth overall in the team event, the best placement for a Canadian gymnastics team in Olympic history. In 2016, Davydova completed the circle, representing Canada as Head Floor Judge at the 2016 Rio Olympics. Davydova was known for her cutting-edge difficulty, innovation and charming performances. In October 2016, she was elected a member of the international Gymnastics Federation’s Women Technical Committee. Elizabeth Manley, Canadian figure skater, was born in 1965. She is the 1988 Olympic silver medallist, the 1988 World silver medallist, and a three-time Canadian national champion. Today in 1974 Phillippe Petit performed a high wire act between the Twin Towers of the World Trade Centre – 1368 feet (417m) in the air.  In 1983 the first World Athletic Championships opened at Helskini in Finland and Grete Waitz of Norway won the first all-women Marathon. On this day in 1984 Japan won the baseball Olympic Gold, beating the USA.  On this day in 1987 American Lynne Cox became the first person to swim from the United States to the Soviet Union. The 30-year-old took two hours and six minutes to cross the Bering Strait which separates the Arctic and Pacific oceans – and the two superpowers. She swam the 2.7 miles (4.3km) from Alaska to Siberia in a bathing suit despite warnings the temperature of the water – which is frozen for most of the year – was dangerously low at around 5°C. Experts believe she succeeded because of a combination of determination and her own body fat which insulated her like a seal. Ms Cox who weighed 13 stone, had about 36% body fat compared to the average for women of between 18-25%. After completing the crossing Ms Cox said she was thrilled by the help she had received from the USSR. “It’s the best, it’s more than I ever imagined – to have them open their door and let us land on their shore. “Having that support from the Soviets and having them help us get into shore and meeting us was wonderful,” she added. The crossing was the latest in a series of endurance swims undertaken by Lynne Cox. At the age of 14 she swam the 31-mile-wide (49 km) Catalina Channel in southern California. In 1975 she became the first woman to swim the 14-mile (23km) Cook Straits in New Zealand in a time of just over 12 hours. After her arduous swim, Cox became famous throughout the Soviet Union. Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev praised her later that year during the signing of a nuclear weapons treaty in Washington DC. “She proved by her courage how closely to each other our people live,” Mr Gorbachev said. But though she became a heroine in the Soviet Union her swim did not make that much of an impact at home – US President Ronald Reagan allegedly had no idea to whom Mr Gorbachev was referring. Lynne Cox returned to the Soviet Union in 1988 to swim across Lake Baikal. In 2005 at the 10th World Athletics Champs Justin Gatlin won the 100m title.


8th -On this day in 1786 Jacques Balmat and Michel-Gabriel Paccard were the first man to climb Mont Blanc. The mountain lies on the border between France and Italy. Mont Blanc is the French name and Monte Bianco is the Italian name for the peak. Both names mean “White Mountain” and it is the highest point in the Alps. This distinction also means the 15,774-foot-high mountain is the highest point in Western Europe and the European Union. It is the 11th highest peak in the world. Jacques Balmat was a Savoyard mountain guide born in the Kingdom of Sardinia. He was from the Chamonix valley in what is France today and collected crystals and hunted chamois, a goat-antelope species of the region. Twenty-five years earlier, Horace-Benedict de Saussure offered a reward to the first man to climb Mont Blanc. Balmat collected the reward, the next year he took Saussure and 17 others to the peak. Michel-Gabriel Paccard was a doctor and scientist. He wanted to reach the top of the mountain for scientific purposes. He made several attempts prior to his success on this date. Their trip was made without what we today would consider necessary equipment – ropes and ice axes, although they did take scientific instruments. Paccard made it to the peak and managed to take the measurements he sought. In 1900 the first Davis Cup tennis competition, reputedly named after Dwight Filley Davis (see work by SJ Eaves and Rob Lake that questions this), began at Longwood Cricket Club in Massachusetts. Known at the time as ‘The International Lawn Tennis Championship’ it was to be held annually, with the winners having to accept a challenge for the trophy the following year. Since 1972 the Davis Cup has been played on a knockout basis. This first edition was, won two days later, by the USA, beating the British Isles, 3-0. On this day in 1902 and 1903 the 2nd and 3rd Davis Cup competitions were held, USA beating the British Isles at New York, 3-2 and the British Isles beating the USA 4-1 in Boston respectively. James “Jumbo” Elliott, American track and field coach, considered by many to be one of the greatest ever, was born in 1915. His achievements include producing five Olympic gold medal winners between 1956 and 1968. Elliott, a college track runner of short and middle distances, graduated from Villanova University in 1935 and returned to coach the track team in 1949 until his death in 1981. In that period, his teams won eight national collegiate team titles, while his athletes won 82 NCAA crowns and set 66 world records. He produced a total of 28 Olympic competitors, five of whom won gold medals: Ron Delany (1956, 1500m), Charles Jenkins (1956, 400m), Don Bragg (1960, pole vault), Paul Drayton (1964, 4×100 m relay), and Larry James (1968, 4×400 m relay). He was inducted into the Track and Field Hall of Fame in 1981. American swimmer and actress Esther Williams was born in 1921. She  set multiple national and regional swimming records in her late teens as part of the Los Angeles Athletic Club swim team. Unable to compete in the 1940 Olympics because of the outbreak of World War II, she joined Billy Rose’s Aquacade, where she took on the role vacated by Eleanor Holm after the show’s move from New York City to San Francisco. While in the city, she spent five months swimming alongside Olympic gold medal winner and Tarzan star, Johnny Weissmuller. Williams caught the attention of MGM scouts at the Aquacade. After appearing in several small roles, alongside Mickey Rooney in an Andy Hardy film, and future five-time co-star Van Johnson in A Guy Named Joe, Williams made a series of films in the 1940s and early 1950s known as “aquamusicals,” which featured elaborate performances with synchronized swimming and diving. From 1945 to 1949, Williams had at least one film listed among the 20 highest-grossing films of the year. In 1952, Williams appeared in her only biographical role, as Australian swimming star Annette Kellerman in Million Dollar Mermaid, which went on to become her nickname while at MGM. Williams left MGM in 1956 and appeared in a handful of unsuccessful feature films, followed by several extremely popular water-themed network television specials, including one from Cypress Gardens, Florida. Williams was also a successful businesswoman. Even before retiring as an actress, she invested in a “service station, a metal products plant, a manufacturer of bathing suits, various properties and a successful restaurant chain known as Trails.” She lent her name to a line of swimming pools and retro swimwear, instructional swimming videos for children, and served as a commentator for synchronized swimming at the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles. One of Britain’s most successful motor-racing drivers, Nigel Mansell, was born in 1954. He started his F1 career at Lotus and had his first win in the 1985 European Grand Prix. After twice coming close to taking the world title with the Williams team, he moved to Ferrari but returned to Williams in 1991. He was crowned world champion at the end of the 1992 season, which he had dominated.  Today in 1969 Iain Macmillan was invited by John Lennon to shoot some pictures for an upcoming album cover. The Beatles had recorded most of their music at the EMI Studios on Abbey Road, St. John’s Wood, London. They agreed to meet outside the studio with Paul McCartney giving the photographer an idea of what was wanted. The four “Beatles” would cross the street, in the background was an abandoned Volkswagen Beetle which had been left there while the owner was on holiday. Iain stood on a stepladder placed in the middle of the road while a policeman blocked traffic and took six pictures. It was picture number five that was eventually chosen for the cover of the album – Abbey Road, the only one were the band were in were perfect full-step. After getting these six pictures, Iain went to photograph a road sign for the back cover. He found the sign he was looking for on the corner of Alexandra Road. While taking a picture, a girl in a blue dress walked past, photo bombing it. Although upset at the time, it was the picture chosen for the back of the cover. On this day in 1983, at the first World Athletics Champs, Carl Lewis takes the 100m crown.  Today in 2008, the 29th Olympic Games, held in Beijing, opened.



 9th-On this day in 1908, the 6th Tour de France was won by Lucien Petit-Breton. Born on this day in 1911, Eddie Futch, American boxing trainer. Among the fighters he trained are Joe Frazier, Ken Norton, Larry Holmes, and Trevor Berbick, four of the five men to defeat Muhammad Ali. Futch also trained Riddick Bowe and Montell Griffin when they handed future Hall of Fame fighters Evander Holyfield and Roy Jones, Jr., their first professional defeats. In Baltimore, Maryland, the Futch Gym boxing gymnasium is named after the trainer. In 1936 Jesse Owens won his 4th Gold medal at the Berlin Olympics. Rod Laver, the first man to achieve a Grand Slam in lawn Tennis twice (1962 and 1969), was born in Australia in 1938. Laver won Wimbledon titles in 1961, 1962, 1968 and 1969. French racing driver Patrick Depailler was born in 1944 who participated in 95 World Championship Formula One Grands Prix, debuting on 2 July 1972. He also participated in several non-Championship Formula One races. Depailler was born in Clermont-Ferrand and as a child, he was inspired by Jean Behra. In Formula One, he joined a Tyrrell team that was beginning a long, slow decline, eventually moving to the erratic Ligier team before finally ending up with the revived Alfa Romeo squad in 1980. Depailler was helping to advance this team up the grid when he was killed in a crash at Hockenheim on 1 August 1980, during a private testing session. He won 2 races, secured 1 pole position, achieved 19 podiums, and scored a total of 141 championship points. Kay Stenshjemmet, Norweigan speed skater, was born today in 1953.Together with Amund Sjøbrend, Sten Stensen, and Jan Egil Storholt, Kay Stenshjemmet was one of the legendary four S-es(which sounds like “four aces” in Norwegian), four Norwegian top skaters in the 1970s and early 1980s. During the 1976 European Allround Championships in Oslo, fellow Norwegian Sten Stensen (the defending European Champion), set a new world record on the 10,000m, but Stenshjemmet still became European Champion by a tiny margin of only 0.005 points (equivalent to 0.10 seconds on the 10000m). At the end of the 1975–1976 season, the world record for the 5000m was Piet Kleine’s 7:02.38. On 19 March 1977, first Sergey Marchuk and then in the following pair Stenshjemmet were the first to skate the 5000m below seven minutes, with 6:58.88 and 6:56.9, respectively. Stenshjemmet’s world record would last for five years, until Aleksandr Baranov skated 6:54.44. Stenshjemmet was European All-round Champion in 1976 and 1980. He was also Norwegian All-round Champion in 1976, 1977, 1978, and 1981, as well as Norwegian Sprint Champion in 1976. At the 1980 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid, Stenshjemmet won silver in the 1500m and the 5000m, both behind Eric Heiden. A pioneer in the field of American aviation and one of the most prominent racing pilots of her generation, Jacqueline Cochran, died on this day in 1980 aged 74. She was an important contributor to the formation of the wartime Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps(WAAC) and Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP). Known by her friends as “Jackie”, and maintaining the Cochran name, she was one of three women to compete in the MacRobertson Air Race in 1934.In 1937, she was the only woman to compete in the Bendix race and worked with Amelia Earhart to open the race to women. That year, she also set a new women’s national speed record. By 1938, she was considered the best female pilot in the United States. She had won the Bendix and set a new transcontinental speed record as well as altitude records. Cochran was the first woman to fly a bomber across the Atlantic. She won five Harmon Trophies. Sometimes called the “Speed Queen”, at the time of her death, no other pilot held more speed, distance, or altitude records in aviation history than Cochran. Cochran’s aviation accomplishments never gained the continuing media attention given those of Amelia Earhart, but that can in part be attributed to the public’s fascination with those who die young at the peak of their careers. Also, Cochran’s use of her husband’s immense wealth reduced the rags-to-riches nature of her story. Nonetheless, she deserves a place in the ranks of famous women in history as one of the greatest aviators ever, and a woman who frequently used her influence to advance the cause of women in aviation. Despite her lack of formal education, Cochran had a quick mind and an affinity for business and her investment in the cosmetics field proved a lucrative one. Later, in 1951, the Boston Chamber of Commerce voted her one of the 25 outstanding businesswomen in America. In 1953 and 1954, the Associated Press named her “Woman of the Year in Business”. Blessed by fame and wealth, Cochran donated a great deal of time and money to charitable works, especially with those from impoverished backgrounds like her own. British decathlete Daley Thompson set a new world record of 8847 points to retain his Olympic title at the 1984 Games in Los Angeles. American distance swimmer Hayley Peirsol was born today in 1985, she earned 3 individual NCAA titles and 3 individual SEC titles in freestyle as well as 3 NCAA and 4 SEC team titles. In 2006 and 2007, Hayley also trained with Club Wolverine at the University of Michigan along with teammates Erik Vendt, Michael Phelps, Klete and Kalyn Keller, and Kaitlin Sandeno under Bob Bowman and the legendary distance guru, Jon Urbanchek. In 2006, Hayley became the third woman in history to ever break 16 minutes in the 1500m freestyle, the other two women being Janet Evans and Kate Ziegler. In 2007, Hayley retired from swimming with the desire of making her name known as a triathlete. She trained under former World Champion Siri Lindley in Santa Monica, California with teammates Mirinda Carfrae (2010 Ironman World Champion), Jenny Fletcher and New Zealander Samantha Warriner. In May 2009 she took second place in her first ITU race which was in her brother’s hometown of Austin, Texas. Hayley received the Rookie of the Year award in 2009 from the ITU federation for her accomplishments in her new sport. She then moved to Berkeley, California after retiring from competitive sports. In the Bay Area, she attended a three-year programme at Rudolf Steiner’s Bay Area Centre for Waldorf Teacher Training. Hayley now lives in Costa Rica teaching in a start-up Waldorf School in Lake Arenal. Her brother, American backstroker Aaron Peirsol, is a multiple Olympic Games gold medallist, having competed in Greece, Australia and China. Hayley and Aaron are the first of two sibling duos to medal at the same FINA World Championships (in 2003 and 2007), along with Bronte Campbell and Cate Campbell who won silver  on the same 4x100m freestyle relay in Barcelona in 2013. One of football’s most loved characters, Joe Mercer, died on this day in 1990, aged 76. The former Everton and Arsenal winger, and also Footballer of the Year, had spells managing Sheffield United and Aston Villa before joining Manchester City in 1965 and guiding the club to the League title in the 1967-8 season.  In 1992 David Gower played his last day of Test cricket. On the very same day in 1992 the 25th Olympic Games, held in Barcelona, came to a close. Today in 2012 Usain Bolt became the first person to win the 100m and 200m in back to back Olympics.



10th-On this day 1793 The Louvre officially opened. The Louvre Palace was the fortress of Philip II of the 12th century and parts of the original building are still visible. It is not known whether or not this was the first building erected here. Charles V converted the building into a residence and Francis I not only renovated it, but also acquired what would become the nucleus of the Louvre’s holdings. It was he who brought Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa to France. Louis XIV moved his residence to Versailles in 1682 and at the Palace, construction slowed and artists began to use it as a residence. During the mid-1700s there were a number of proposals to create a public gallery and a call to display the royal collection. In 1750, Louis XV agreed to display 96 pieces, which were available for viewing on Wednesdays and Saturdays until the collection closed in 1780. The next Louis made the royal museum a policy and the collection expanded. In May 1791, during the French Revolution, the Louvre was transformed into a public museum and it was declared it would bring together monuments of the sciences and arts. One year before this date, King Louis XVI was imprisoned and the royal collection became national property. On the first anniversary of the monarchy’s demise, the museum officially opened. The public was given free access three days a week. At the time, the collection contained 537 paintings and 184 art objects. Three quarters of the collection came from the royal collections while the remainder came from confiscated items from French Huguenots who were forced to flee and from Church property. In order to further expand the pieces available, the Republic dedicated 100,000 livres per year. The beginning years were chaotic with paintings unlabelled and hanging without rhyme or reason. The building itself had to be closed in May 1796 due to structural issues and reopened on July 14, 1801. Today, the Musee du Louvre contains more than 380,000 objects and displays 35,000 of them in eight curatorial departments. The first long-distance car race, which had started in Peking on 10th June, ended in Paris on this day in 1907. The race was won by Prince Borghese of Italy driving an Itala. Carlos Menditéguy Argentinean racing driver and polo player was born in 1914. He entered 11 Formula One World Championship Grands Prix, achieving one podium, and scoring a total of nine championship points. In polo he reached the highest possible handicap of 10. He was an all-round sportsman and became a scratch golf player in under two years as the result of a bet with some friends. Today in 1934 Babe Ruth announced that this was to be his final season as a full-time player. British swimmer Anita Lonsborough was born in 1941. She won the 200m breaststroke gold at the Rome Olympics in 1960. She later married cyclist Hugh Porter. Top rugby league player Andy Gregory was also born in Wigan on this day in 1941. Only 5 feet 4 inches (1.62m) tall, Gregory made his name with Widnes before eventually moving to his illustrious hometown team for a large fee. He appeared in nine Challenge Cup finals and collected a winners’ medal on a record seven occasions. Pakistani cricketer Shafqat Rana was born in 1943 who played in five Tests from 1964 to 1969.Shafqat Rana was a very good right-handed batsman, strong on the drive and cut, who was not given that many opportunities in a broken career in which he played five Tests in six years. The highlight was an appearance against New Zealand in 1969-70 when he made a career-best 95, and a total of 167 runs, in the third Test at Lahore, and 65 at Dhaka where rioting caused the abandonment of the game. He made his first-class debut in 1959-60, and toured England with the Pakistan Eaglets in 1963. He toured Australia and New Zealand with the Pakistan team in 1964-65, scoring 182 runs at 18.20 and not playing in any of the Tests. He later toured England in 1971, scoring 228 runs at 17.53, also without playing a Test. He played his last first-class match in 1978-79. His highest score was 174 for Lahore against Sargodha at the Quaid-e-Azam Trophy in 1968-69 at Lahore, when he put on 330 for the fourth wicket with Waqar Ahmed. In 1949 Ezzard Charles win the heavyweight boxing title after a technical knock-out win over Gus Lesnevich. Today in 1954 Sir Gordon Richards retired as a jockey with a British record 4870 winners, he also holds the record for the most consecutive winners ridden, 12, half at a night meeting. He was British flat racing Champion Jockey a record 25 times.  In 1932, as stable jockey to Fred Darling he set a record for the number of won in a year with 259 victories, a record he was to keep for nearly 50 years (breaking his own record in 1947 with 269 winners).  His record was surpassed in 2002 by jump jockey Tony McCoy, however, McCoy was able to utilise modern technology aby flying between tracks and therefore compete in more races that Sir Gordon was able to. On this day in 1983 at the first World Athletics Champs, Carl Lewis wins gold in the long-jump. Today in 1984 South African-born British athlete, Zola Budd, was again the centre of controversy following a disastrous accident during the women’s 3000m final at the Olympic Games in Los Angeles. During the race she appeared to have tangled with top American runner Mary Decker, putting Decker out of the race. The crowd’s hostile reaction so unnerved the 18-year-old runner that she could only finish seventh. Budd was already in the international spotlight after her application for British citizenship was fast-tracked earlier this year, in time for her to compete at the Games. As a South African, she would have been ineligible to compete as the country was banned from international sport because of its policy of apartheid. The decision to grant her citizenship has caused fury among anti-apartheid campaigners. The incident made the 3000m final the most hotly-debated race of the Games. The few seconds that destroyed both women’s hopes of a medal were shown on television from every angle in an attempt to decide which athlete was to blame. They showed that shortly after the half-way mark, with Zola Budd slightly in front, she and Mary Decker bumped into each other twice. In the second encounter, Mary Decker’s spikes caught Budd’s heel. Budd was, as usual, running barefoot. Her left leg shot out as she stumbled, tripping Decker.The American pitched forward and crashed to the floor on the infield grass, clutching her right thigh. She was unable to get up and was carried from the track in tears, her race over. Zola Budd carried on, but as she did so, the largely American crowd began booing her from the stands. Obviously upset, Budd finished well down the field, and Maricica Puica of Romania took the gold. At a news conference after the race, a tearful Mary Decker told journalists, “Zola tried to cut in without being far enough ahead. There was no question but that she was in the wrong.” Track officials disagreed with her, however. After initially disqualifying Budd for obstruction, she was reinstated just one hour later once officials had viewed films of the race. Zola Budd told journalists that she tried to apologise to Decker in the tunnel leading away from the track after the race, but was told abruptly, “Don’t bother.”   The issue of who was to blame for Decker’s fall was the subject of heated debate for some time to come. Zola Budd continued to compete in Britain for another four years, but could never shake off the political controversy, nor overcome criticism over the Decker incident. She continued to show what a remarkable athlete she was, however. She broke several British and world records, in 1985 taking the world 5000m record by 10 seconds. She returned to South Africa in 1988. In 1992 a long-anticipated “re-match” with Mary Decker in a road race ended in anti-climax, with Decker winning easily. On this day in 1989 the Australians arrived in Nottingham for the Trent Bridge Test giddy after regaining the Ashes, and being the first Australian side to win a series in England since the 1975 Ashes series. The weather and pitch looked suited to batting, and so on winning the toss, Allan Border had no hesitation in choosing to do so. What happened next went down as one of the most memorable moments in Ashes folklore. England opened the bowling with the relatively inexperienced pair of Devon Malcolm and Angus Fraser, and Australia’s opening batsmen Mark Taylor and Geoff Marsh tore them apart. The Nottingham crowd were treated to an exciting display of a mixture of stroke-play and powerful hitting. The pair batted throughout the morning and had soon passed 50. Botham and then Hemmings were brought in to bowl, but were equally ineffective. The Australians both looked set and determined, and rarely mis-timed or beaten. By lunch the score had gone past 150, with both openers passing their half-centuries. After a well-earned break, they resumed where they had left off, scoring freely throughout the afternoon. By tea they had gone past 200, Taylor the first to bring up his century, followed soon after by Marsh. The pair, as might be expected after such a long day, had slowed down in the final session, but by stumps Australia’s score stood at 301 for 0. Taylor was not out on 141 and Marsh not out on 125. It was the first time ever in history that no wicket had fallen on the first day of a test match in England. Australia ultimately won the fifth test of the 1989 Ashes series by an innings and 180 runs inside four days to lead the best of 6 test series 4-0. In 1997 the 6th World Athletics Championships come to a close at Athens. Today in 2008 at the 90th PGA Championship, held at Oakland Hills Country Club, Pádraig Harrington shoots a 277 to take the title. On this day in 2013 the 14th World Athletics Championships are opened in Moscow.



 11th-Turnvater Jahn, roughly meaning “father of gymnastics” Jahn, Friedrich Ludwig Jahn was born on this day in 1778, a German gymnastics educator and nationalist. He was born in ,Prussia and studied theology and philology from 1796 to 1802 at the University of Greifswald. After the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt in 1806 he joined the Prussian army. In 1809, he went to Berlin, where he became a teacher at the Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster and at the Plamann School. Brooding upon what he saw as the humiliation of his native land by Napoleon, Jahn conceived the idea of restoring the spirits of his countrymen by the development of their physical and moral powers through the practice of gymnastics  The first Turnplatz, or open-air gymnasium, was opened by Jahn in Berlin in 1811, and the Turnverein (gymnastics association) movement spread rapidly. Young gymnasts were taught to regard themselves as members of a kind of guild for the emancipation of their fatherland. The nationalistic spirit was nourished in a significant degree by the writings of Jahn. On this day in 1884 the first double-century stand in Test Cricket takes place, McDonnell/Murdoch scoring 207 for Australia.  Italian cyclist Alfredo Binda was born today in 1902. He was the first to win five editions of the Giro d’Italia, and a three-time world champion. In addition he won Milan–San Remo twice, and the Tour of Lombardy four times. Later he would manage the Italian National team. Under him, Fausto Coppi, Gino Bartali and Gastone Nencini all triumphed at the Tour de France. Green Bay Packers American football club are founded in 1919 by George Calhoun and Curly Lambeau, the team is named after their sponsor – the Indian Packing Company. On this day in 1929 Babe Ruth becomes the first baseball player to hit 500 home runs in his career with a home run at League Park in Cleveland, Ohio. New Zealand cricketer Glenys Lynne Page was born on this day in 1940. Page played in only two Women’s One Day International cricket matches, both at the 1973 Women’s Cricket World Cup held in England. Making her debut in New Zealand’s inaugural ODI match against Trinidad and Tobago, she took six wickets for twenty runs – the best bowling figures by a player on debut in a women’s ODI.  She held the record for best bowling figures by a New Zealander in women’s ODIs from 1973 to 1982 surpassed by Jackie Lord’s performance of 6/10 against India at the 1982 Women’s Cricket World Cup.Page played her domestic cricket for Auckland between 1965 and 1982 and died in Auckland on 7 November 2012, aged 72. Today in 1948 the Summer Olympic Games in London were opened. Les Ames became the first wicketkeeper to score 100 centuries in a career in first-class cricket at Canterbury, in 1950.  His 131 set Kent on their way to a four-wicket victory over arch-rivals Middlesex on the last day of Canterbury Week. Swimmer Wijda Mazereeuw was born on this day in 1953 in Enkhuizen, North Holland, she was a medley  and breaststroke swimmer. Mazereeuw represented her native country twice at the Summer Olympics, starting in 1972, the highlight of her career was at the 1975 World Aquatics Championships in Cali, Colombia, where she won silver medals at both the 100 m (1:14.29) and the 200 m (2:37.50) breaststroke. She was also part of the Dutch 4×100m medley relay team that won the bronze medal with a time of 4:21.45. Her best Olympic performance was fifth place with the women’s 4×100m medley relay team at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, clocking 4:19.93. On this day in 1971, the Prime Minister, Edward Heath, steered the British Admiral’s Cup team to victory at the helm of his 42-foot yacht, Morning Cloud. Mr Heath sailed into Plymouth at 1700 BST at the end of the punishing 605-mile long Fastnet race to cheers from a crowd of onlookers. The five-day race took him from Cowes, on the Isle of Wight, to the Fastnet Rock off southern Ireland and back to Plymouth. The Morning Cloud was the last of the three British yachts to return, in 14th place overall, but with enough points to secure the return of the Admiral’s Cup to Britain. Looking jubilant as he stepped on to dry land, Mr Heath told waiting reporters, “I am absolutely delighted we won. It has been a team effort throughout.” During the race, Mr Heath had to weather storms not only in the Atlantic Ocean, but also from critics at home who condemned his decision to stay in the race despite a growing crisis in Northern Ireland. The decision by Northern Ireland’s Prime Minister, Brian Faulkner, to impose internment of suspected terrorists without trial was taken while Mr Heath was still at sea, and the Home Secretary and acting Prime Minister, Reginald Maudling, had to deal with the emergency in his place. At a news conference shortly after his arrival at Plymouth, Mr Heath refused to discuss Northern Ireland, saying only that he had been kept closely informed of events by radio link. It was left to his press officer, Henry James, to explain that all decisions on the government’s course of action had been taken before Mr Heath sailed. He said the prime minister went on board the Morning Cloud as planned to avoid raising the alarm that something unusual was afoot. There were contingency plans in place to lift Mr Heath off the yacht by helicopter, but if that had happened, the Morning Cloud would have been disqualified and Britain’s chances of winning the Admiral’s Cup would have virtually disappeared. As it was, Britain was 43 points clear of the previous holders of the Admiral’s Cup, the United States, in second place, and Australia in third. Kristin Armstrong, professional road cycle racer was born today in 1973, three-time Olympic gold medallist and the winner of the women’s individual time trial in 2008, 2012 and 2016. Before temporarily retiring to start a family in 2009, she rode for Cervélo TestTeam in women’s elite professional events on the National Racing Calendar (NRC) and UCI Women’s World Cup. She announced a return to competitive cycling beginning in the 2011 season, competing for Peanut Butter & Co TWENTY12 at the Redlands Classic. Marie-France Dubreuil, Canadian ice-dancing coach and former competitor was born on this day in 1974. With partner and husband Patrice Lauzon, she is a two-time (2006–2007) World silver medallist. Carl Lewis duplicates Jesse Owens’ 1936 feat by winning his 4th Olympic track gold on this day in 1984. Today in 1985 Rudolf Povarnitsin of Russia set a new high jump world record of 7 feet 10 ½ inches. Irish triathlete and cyclist Junior Heffernan was born in 1989. He attended Kelly College on the outskirts of Tavistock, Devon, where he competed under coach Rich Brady. Heffernan represented Ireland in international competitions both at the World and European championship levels in triathlon from 2007 until 2009 when a hip injury sent him in the direction of cycling. Prior to his set-back he was widely considered to have been Ireland’s most promising triathlete. As a cyclist Heffernan competed for the Herbalife Leisure Lakes Team. Heffernan was fatally injured in a collision during the Severn Bridge Road race on 3rd March 2013 at the aged of 23. A crowd of 33,000 attended a testimonial match for the former Manchester United manager Sir Matt Busby at Old Trafford in 1991. The match, a 1-1 draw between United and a Republic of Ireland XI, yielded a staggering £250,000 for the man who turned United into one of the first truly great post-war English teams. The giant-hitting John Daly came from nowhere to win the 1991 US PGA title at the Crooked Stick course in Indiana. A Tour ‘Rookie’, and ninth reserve for the tournament, he came into the event as the last entrant and went on to provide one of the biggest upsets at the time, outdriving his rivals to win the title by three strokes from Bruce Lietzke. On this day in 2005 Justin Gatlin won 200m gold at the 10th World Athletic Champs. The founder of the Special Olympics, Dame Eunice Mary Kennedy Shriver,died on this day in 2009 aged 88. She was a member of the Kennedy family;the sister of President John F. Kennedy and senators Robert F. Kennedy and Ted Kennedy. Her husband, Sargent Shriver, was the United States Ambassador to France during the Lyndon Johnson presidency and the Democratic vice presidential candidate in the 1972 U.S. presidential election. In 1962, she founded Camp Shriver, which started on her Maryland farm known as Timberlawn, and evolved into Special Olympics in 1968. For her work in nationalizing the Special Olympics, Shriver received the Civitan International World Citizenship Award. Her advocacy on this issue has also earned her other awards and recognitions, including honorary degrees from numerous universities. She is the second American and only woman to appear on a US coin while still living. Her portrait is on the obverse of the 1995 commemorative silver dollar honouring the Special Olympics. On the reverse is the quotation, “As we hope for the best in them, hope is reborn in us.” Today in 2013 at the 95th PGA Championships, Jason Dufner shoots a 270 to win at Oak Hill Country Club. On the same day as Usain Bolt wins the 100m title at the 14th World Athletics Champs.



12th-On this day in 1851, the first America’s Cup was won by the US schooner America, beating the British Yacht Aurora after a race around the Isle of Wight. Dutch mountaineer and sport shooter Henrik Sillem was born today in 1866. Together with his friend Solko van den Bergh and the Frenchman François Monod, Sillem initiated the first ‘international shooting matches’ (world championships in shooting) in 1897 in Lyon. These were the forerunners of the matches that were held in Paris in 1900, now considered to have been part of the Olympics. Sillem competed with the Dutch pistol team and won a bronze medal. When he was 19, Sillem climbed the Matterhorn from the northern side, with FG Waller. In 1902 he reached an altitude of 6,400 m (21,000ft) on Nun in Kashmir. In 1905 he climbed the Aconcagua in the Andes, he also climbed Antarctica’s Mount Kinsey and Mount Ellie.In March 1906, Henrik Sillem made the first ascent of the West Ridge of Mt Cook in New Zealand with guide Peter Graham. Sillem died aged 41 in 1907 he fell while descending the Aiguille du Midi and was buried nearby, in Courmayeur.In 1876 the 4th running of the America’s Cup was won by the US vessel Madeline, beating the Countess Dufferin from Canada. The first National Archery Association tournament takes place in Chicago today in 1879.Bill Murdoch scored the first Test cricket double-century, 211 at The Oval, in 1884. On this day in 1886 WG Grace made his highest Test Cricket score against Australia at the Oval. Harry Hopman, world-acclaimed Australian tennis player and coach, was born today in 1906.Hopman was a student at Rosehill Public Primary school, where his father was headmaster, and later at Parramatta High School, where he played tennis and cricket. Hopman was the successful captain-coach of 22 Australian Davis Cup teams from 1939 to 1967. In late 1951, when it appeared that Davis Cup player Frank Sedgman was about to turn professional, Hopman used his column in the Melbourne Herald to lead a fundraising campaign designed to keep Sedgman in the amateur ranks. Enough money was raised to purchase a gasoline station in the name of Sedgman’s wife-to-be and Sedgman remained an amateur for one more year. As Joe McCauley writes in The History of Professional Tennis, “For some reason, the pious Hopman, a strong opponent of the paid game, did not regard this as an infringement of Sedgman’s amateur status.” Hopman was also a journalist, joining the Melbourne Herald in 1933 as a sportswriter. He provided sporting commentary. After World War II, this became his focus until he was once again coaxed into tennis coaching. As an example of Hopman’s journalism, Kramer writes that Sedgman, by then a successful touring professional, once “volunteered to help train the Aussie Davis Cup team. Hopman accepted the offer, and then he took Sedg aside and told him that what Hoad and Rosewall needed was confidence. So he told Sedgbto go easy on them, which he gladly did. After a few days, Hopman wrote an exclusive in his newspaper column revealing how his kids could whip Sedgman and how this proved once again that amateurs were better than the pros.” The Hopman Cup is named in his honour. Today in 1928 the 9th Olympic Games came to a close in Amsterdam. In 1936 Marjorie Gestring of the United States became the youngest winner of an individual Olympic medal when she won the springboard diving title at the Berlin Games; she was only 13 years and 286 days old at the time. Bert Sutcliffe scored 100* in the second innings of New Zealand’s game against Essex at Southend in 1949 to become the first member of a New Zealand touring side to score two centuries in a match in England: he scored 243 in his first innings, the highest made by a New Zealand tourist in England at the time, he also became the first New Zealander to score 2000 runs in a season.  American long-jumper Ralph Boston set a new world record in 1960 with a leap of 8.21m (26 feet 11¼ inches) breaking Jesse Owens record set at Ann Arbor, Michigan in 1935. On this day in 1964 South Africa was banned from the Olympic Games due to the country’s racist policies. Andrey Plotnikov, Russian race walker was born today in 1967. He won the bronze medal in the 50km race at the 1998 European Championships. He represented his native country at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta. Pete Sampras, the youngest winner of the men’s singles at the US Lawn Tennis Championships, was born in 1971. He was only 19 years and 28 days old when he won the title in 1990. He won his first Wimbledon singles title in 1993. Today in 1972 Ian and Greg Chappell both score centuries in the same Test Cricket innings. The 23rd Olympic Games, held in Los Angeles, came to a close on this day in 1984. Vanessa Watts, Jamaican cricketer, who represented the West Indies, was born in 1987. Watts has played in one women’s One Day International and four women’s Twenty20 International matches. On this day in 2012 the 30th edition of the Olympic Games, held in London, came an end. Two Japanese Sumo Wrestlers died on this day in 2014. Firsty Futatsuryū Jun’ichi, who after his retirement became the head coach of Tokitsukaze stable. Following his involvement in the hazing and death of trainee Takashi Saito, in October 2007 he became the first serving stable master to be dismissed by the Japan Sumo Association. In May 2009 he was sentenced to six years in prison. He died of lung cancer at the age of 64. Secondly Kongō Masahiro, who was 65 at the time of his death. His highest rank was sekiwake and he won a top division tournament championship in 1975. He was a sumo coach and head of the Nishonoseki stable from 1976 until 2013.



13th -Hungarian water polo player István Barta was born on this day in 1895, he competed in the 1924, 1928 and 1932 Olympics. At the 1924 Games, he played all four Olympic mates as goal-keeper and the team were placed seventh. In 1928 the team won silver and four years later went one better winning the Olympic title. Tennis player Jean Borotra, a member of the successful French Davis Cup tea, of the 1920s dubbed the ‘Four Musketeers’, was born in 1898. Borotra, nicknamed the ‘Bounding Basque’, was the first Frenchman to win the men’s singles at Wimbledon in 1924. One of the finest early post-war American golfers, Ben Hogan, was born in 1912. He won nine Majors, including the US Open four times. His win in the 190 Open came only a year after a horrific car crash that nearly claimed his life. In 1953 he became the first man to win three Majors in one year. Had the US PGA Championship not clashed with the British Open, which he won, Hogan would probably have won that as well to complete a remarkable Grand Slam. German football referee Wilfried Hilker was born in 1930. He was a referee for the German Football Association between 1964 and 1978. He refereed 81 games in the Fußball-Bundesliga and 36 games in the Fußball-Bundesliga second division in this time and was also in charge of two international matches, five European Cup games and six games in Turkey and Greece.During his career, Bochum-based Hilker only ever produced a red card twice. Today in 1948 American operatic soprano singer Kathleen Deanna Battle was born. Battle initially became known for her work within the concert repertoire through performances with major orchestras during the early and mid-1970s. She made her opera debut in 1975. Battle expanded her repertoire into lyric soprano and coloratura soprano roles during the 1980s and early 1990s until her eventual dismissal from the Metropolitan Opera in 1994. After a 22-year absence from the Met, Battle performed a concert of spirituals at the Metropolitan Opera House in November 2016. In 1948 Boris Stankovic of Yugoslavia went into the record books as the first football player to be sent off in a match at Wembley. He received his marching orders in the final of the Olympic football tournament. Sweden won the match 3-2. Louis Bastien, French cyclist and fencer, died today in 1963. He participated in Cycling at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris and won the gold medal in the men’s 25 kilometre race. He also competed in the individual épée event at the same games. Midori Ito or Midori Itō, Japanese figure skater, was born in 1969. She is the 1989 World champion and the 1992 Olympic silver medallist. She is the first woman to land a triple-triple jump combination and a triple axel in competition. At the 1988 Calgary Olympics, she became the first woman to land seven triple jumps in a free skating competition. Alan Shearer, who in 1992 became Britain’s most-costliest footballer when he was transferred to Blackburn Rovers, was born in Newcastle on this day in 1970. His goal-scoring talents put Rovers at the top of the Premier League until injury cut short his season and with it Blackburn’s hopes of the title. Alona Bondarenko, Ukrainian tennis player was born in 1984.She has a younger sister Kateryna Bondarenko who also plays on the Tour. She formerly paired with her older sister Valeria in doubles.Her career high singles ranking was Number 19, achieved on 14 April 2008. She defeated former World No. 1 Jelena Janković in the third round of the 2010 Australian Open. She won the 2008 Australian Open women’s doubles tournament with her sister Kateryna, beating Victoria Azarenka and Shahar Pe’er in the finals. Australian footballer Katrina-Lee Gorry was born today in 1992, who currently plays for Japanese Japan Women’s Football League team Vegalta Sendai. She is the 2014 AFC Women’s Player of the Year. Today in 1993 in Stuttgart, Germany, the 4th World Athletics Championships are opened. On this day in 1995 the 5th World Athletics Championships come to a close at Gothenburg. Also on this day in 1995 saw the tragic death of British mountaineer Alison Jane Hargreaves.  At the age of just 33 she met her demise while descending from the summit of K2. Her accomplishments included scaling Mount Everest alone, without supplementary oxygen or support from a Sherpa team, in 1995 She soloed all the great north faces of the Alps in a single season—a first for any climber. This feat included climbing the difficult north face of the Eiger, in 1988. Hargreaves also climbed 6,812m (22,349ft) Ama Dablam in Nepal. In 1995, Hargreaves intended to climb the three highest mountains in the world—Mount Everest, K2, and Kangchenjunga—unaided. On 13 May 1995, she reached the summit of Everest without the aid of Sherpas or bottled oxygen. In 2004 the 28th Olympic Games are opened in Athens. On this day in 2012 Nadzeya Ostapchuk of Belarus was stripped of her shot-put gold after failing a drugs test. American swimmer Michael Phelps ended his career at the Rio Olympics today in 2016. The US team won the 4×100 medley relay to claim his 23rd gold medal, making him the most decorated Olympian.